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Corentin Pangaud, Matthieu Ollivier, and Jean-Noël Argenson

  • The gold standard for treating chronic periprosthetic joint infection is still considered to be double-stage exchange revision. The purpose of this review is to analyse the difference in terms of eradication rates and functional outcome after single- and double-stage prosthetic exchange for chronic periprosthetic joint infection around the knee.

  • We reviewed full text articles written in English from 1992 to 2018 reporting the success rates and functional outcomes of either single-stage exchange or double-stage exchange for knee arthroplasty revision performed for chronic infection. In the case of double-stage exchange, particular attention was paid to the type of spacer: articulating or static.

  • In all, 32 articles were analysed: 14 articles for single-stage including 687 patients and 18 articles for double-stage including 1086 patients. The average eradication rate was 87.1% for the one-stage procedure and 84.8% for the two-stage procedure. The functional outcomes were similar in both groups: the average Knee Society Knee Score was 80.0 in the single-stage exchange group and 77.8 in the double-stage exchange. The average range of motion was 91.4° in the single-stage exchange group and 97.8° in the double-stage exchange group.

  • Single-stage exchange appears to be a viable alternative to two -stage exchange in cases of chronic periprosthetic joint infection around the knee, provided there are no contra-indications, producing similar results in terms of eradication rates and functional outcomes, and offering the advantage of a unique surgical procedure, lower morbidity and reduced costs.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:495-502. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.190003

Vikki Wylde, Neil Artz, Nick Howells, and Ashley W. Blom

  • Kneeling ability is consistently the poorest patient-rated outcome after total knee replacement (TKR), with 60–80% of patients reporting difficulty kneeling or an inability to kneel.

  • Difficulty kneeling impacts on many activities and areas of life, including activities of daily living, self-care, leisure and social activities, religious activities, employment and getting up after a fall. Given the wide range of activities that involve kneeling, and the expectation that this will be improved with surgery, problems kneeling after TKR are a source of dissatisfaction and disappointment for many patients.

  • Research has found that there is no association between range of motion and self-reported kneeling ability. More research is needed to understand if and how surgical factors contribute to difficulty kneeling after TKR.

  • Discrepancies between patients’ self-reported ability to kneel and observed ability suggests that patients can kneel but elect not to. Reasons for this are multifactorial, including knee pain/discomfort, numbness, fear of harming the prosthesis, co-morbidities and recommendations from health professionals. There is currently no evidence that there is any clinical reason why patients should not kneel on their replaced knee, and reasons for not kneeling could be addressed through education and rehabilitation.

  • There has been little research to evaluate the provision of healthcare services and interventions for patients who find kneeling problematic after TKR. Increased clinical awareness of this poor outcome and research to inform the provision of services is needed to improve patient care and allow patients to return to this important activity.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:460-467. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.180085

Gilles Pasquier, Matthieu Ehlinger, and Didier Mainard

  • Hinged implants are the most constrained knee replacement prostheses. They are very useful in complex cases of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) revision.

  • Hinged implants have evolved with rotating bearings and modularity that allows local joint reconstruction or segmental bone replacement.

  • They are required when significant instability persists in cases with inadequate collateral ligaments and significant flexion laxity.

  • They are now used when a large bone defect is reconstructed, or when bone fixation of the implant is questionable especially in the metaphyseal zone.

  • The use of hinged implants in TKA revision is associated with high complication rates. Published outcomes differ based on the patients’ aetiology.

  • The outcomes of rotating-hinged implants used in septic revisions or salvage situations are poorer than other types of revision and have a higher complication rate.

  • The poor general health of these patients is often a limitation.

  • Despite these relatively poor results, hinged implants continue to have a place in revision surgery to solve major instability or to obtain stable bone fixation of an implant when the metaphysis is filled with bone grafts or porous devices.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4 DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.180070

E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán

  • Possible indications for a rotating hinge or pure hinge implant in primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) include collateral ligament insufficiency, severe varus or valgus deformity (> 20°) with relevant soft-tissue release, relevant bone loss, including insertions of collateral ligaments, gross flexion-extension gap imbalance, ankylosis and hyperlaxity.

  • The use of hinged implants in primary TKA should be limited to the aforementioned selected indications, especially for elderly patients.

  • Potential indications for a rotating hinge or pure hinge implant in revision TKA include infection, aseptic loosening, instability and bone loss.

  • Rotating hinge knee implants have a 10-year survivorship in the range of 51% to 92.5%.

  • Complication rates of rotating hinge knee implants are in the range of 9.2% to 63%, with infection and aseptic loosening as the most common complications.

  • Although the results reported in the literature are inconsistent, clinical results generally depend on the implant design, appropriate technical use and adequate indications.

  • Considering that the revision of implants with long cemented stems can be challenging, in the future it would be better to use shorter stems in modular versions of hinged knee implants.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:121-132. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.180056

Daan Vermeulen, Mara Rosa van der Valk, and Laurens Kaas

  • With an incidence of 5.8 per 100,000 per year, patellar dislocations are commonly seen in the emergency department. Surprisingly, there are only a few studies available that focus on the results of the different non-surgical treatment options after first-time patellar dislocation. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the most recent and relevant studies on the rationales and results of the non-surgical treatment for first-time patellar dislocation.

  • Patellar instability mainly affects young and active patients, with a peak incidence of 29 per 100 000 per year in adolescents. The medial patellofemoral ligament, a main passive restraint for lateral translation of the patella, is torn in lateral patellofemoral dislocations. Treatment of first-time patellar dislocation can be either conservative or surgical.

  • There are two options in conservative management of first-time patellar dislocation: immobilization using a cylinder cast or removable splint, or, second, functional mobilization after applying a brace or patellar tape.

  • The current available literature of conservative treatment after a first-time patellar dislocation is little and of low quality of evidence. Conclusions should be drawn with care, new research focussing on non-surgical treatment is therefore strongly needed.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:110-114. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.180016

David T. Wallace, Philip E. Riches, and Frédéric Picard

  • Patient-reported instability is a common complaint amongst those with knee arthritis.

  • Much research has examined the assessment of self-reported instability in the knee; however, no definitive quantitative measure of instability has been developed.

  • This review focuses on the current literature investigating the nature of self-reported instability in the arthritic knee and discusses the possibilities of further investigation.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2019;4:70-76. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.4.170079

Lucy C. Walker, Nick D. Clement, Kanishka M. Ghosh, and David J. Deehan

  • For multifactorial reasons an estimated 20% of patients remain unsatisfied after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

  • Appropriate tension of the soft tissue envelope encompassing the knee is important in total knee arthroplasty and soft tissue imbalance contributes to several of the foremost reasons for revision TKA, including instability, stiffness and aseptic loosening.

  • There is debate in the literature surrounding the optimum way to achieve balancing of a total knee arthroplasty and there is also a lack of an accepted definition of what a balanced knee replacement is.

  • It may be intuitive to use the native knee as a model for balancing; however, there are many difficulties with translating this into a successful prosthesis.

  • One of the foundations of TKA, as described by Insall, was that although the native knee has more weight transmitted through the medial compartment this was to be avoided in a TKA as it would lead to uneven wear and early failure. There is a focus on achieving symmetrical tension and pressure and subsequent ‘balance’ in TKA, but the evidence from cadaveric studies is that the native knee is not symmetrically balanced.

  • As we are currently trying to design an implant that is not based on its anatomical counterpart, is it possible to create a truly balanced prosthesis or to even to define what that balance is? The authors have reviewed the current evidence surrounding TKA balancing and its relationship with the native knee.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:614-619. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.180008.

Vikki Wylde, Andrew Beswick, Julie Bruce, Ashley Blom, Nicholas Howells, and Rachael Gooberman-Hill

  • Despite a good outcome for many patients, approximately 20% of patients experience chronic pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

  • Chronic pain after TKA can affect all dimensions of health-related quality of life, and is associated with functional limitations, pain-related distress, depression, poorer general health and social isolation.

  • In both clinical and research settings, the approach to assessing chronic pain after TKA needs to be in-depth and multidimensional to understand the characteristics and impact of this pain. Assessment of this pain has been inadequate in the past, but there are encouraging trends for increased use of validated patient-reported outcome measures.

  • Risk factors for chronic pain after TKA can be considered as those present before surgery, intraoperatively or in the acute postoperative period. Knowledge of risk factors is important to guide the development of interventions and to help to target care. Evaluations of preoperative interventions which optimize pain management and general health around the time of surgery are needed.

  • The causes of chronic pain after TKA are not yet fully understood, although research interest is growing and it is evident that this pain has a multifactorial aetiology, with a wide range of possible biological, surgical and psychosocial factors that can influence pain outcomes.

  • Treatment of chronic pain after TKA is challenging, and evaluation of combined treatments and individually targeted treatments matched to patient characteristics is advocated. To ensure that optimal care is provided to patients, the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of multidisciplinary and individualized interventions should be evaluated.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:461-470. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.180004

Michele Vasso, Alexander Antoniadis, and Naeder Helmy

  • Despite the excellent success rates of modern implants, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) continues to show relatively high failure and revision rates, especially when compared with total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

  • These higher rates of failure and revision are mainly observed during the early (< 5 years) post-operative period and are often due to incorrect indications and/or surgical errors.

  • The correct clinical and radiological indications for UKA have therefore been analysed and correlated as far as possible with the principal mechanisms and timing of failures of UKA.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:442-448. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.170060

Anoop Prasad, Richard Donovan, Manoj Ramachandran, Sebastian Dawson-Bowling, Steven Millington, Rej Bhumbra, Pramod Achan, and Sammy A. Hanna

  • Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in patients affected by poliomyelitis is technically challenging owing to abnormal anatomical features including articular and metaphyseal angular deformities, external rotation of the tibia, excessive valgus alignment, bone loss, narrowness of the femoral and tibial canals, impaired quadriceps strength, flexion contractures, genu recurvatum and ligamentous laxity. Little information is available regarding the results and complications of TKA in this challenging group of patients.

  • We carried out a systematic review of the literature to determine the functional outcome, complications and revision rates of TKA in patients with poliomyelitis-affected knees. Six studies including 82 knees met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The mean patient age was 63 years (45 to 85) and follow-up was 5.5 years (0.5 to 13).

  • All studies reported significant improvement in knee function following TKA. There were six failures requiring revision surgery in 82 cases (7%) occurring at a mean of 6.2 years (0.4 to 12). The reasons for revision surgery were aseptic loosening (17%, n=1), infection (33%, n=2), periprosthetic fracture (17%, n=1) and instability (33%, n=2). Thirty-six knees had a degree of recurvatum pre-operatively (44%), which was in the range of 5° to 30°. Ten of these knees (28%) developed recurrent recurvatum post-operatively.

  • The findings support the use of TKA in patients with poliomyelitis-affected knees. The post-operative functional outcome is similar to other patients; however, the revision rate is higher. Quadriceps muscle power appears to be an important prognostic factor for functional outcome and the use of constrained implant designs is recommended in the presence of less than antigravity quadriceps strength.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2018;3:358-362. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.3.170028