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Jinlong Zhao, Jianke Pan, Ling-feng Zeng, Ming Wu, Weiyi Yang, and Jun Liu

  • Rotator cuff tears are a common condition of the shoulder, and 20.7% of people with the condition have a full-thickness rotator cuff tear. The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors for full-thickness rotator cuff tears and to provide evidence to support the accurate diagnosis of full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

  • Studies from PubMed, Embase and Web of Science published before 30 January 2021 were retrieved. All cohort studies and cross-sectional studies on risk factors for full-thickness rotator cuff tears were included. A meta-analysis was performed in RevMan 5.3 to calculate the relative risks (RRs) or weighted mean differences (WMDs) of related risk factors. Stata 15.1 was used for the quantitative analysis of publication bias.

  • In total, 11 articles from six countries, including 4047 cases, with 1518 cases and 2529 controls, were included. The meta-analysis showed that age (MD = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.24 to 1.28, P = 0.004), hypertension (RR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.17 to 1.81, P = 0.0007) and critical shoulder angle (CSA) (MD = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.55 to 2.48, P < 0.00001) were risk factors for full-thickness rotator cuff tears.

  • Our results also suggested that body mass index, sex, dominant hand, smoking, diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease were not risk factors for full-thickness rotator cuff tears. Early identification of risk factors for full-thickness rotator cuff tears is helpful in identifying high-risk patients and choosing the appropriate treatment.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:1087-1096. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210027

Sheryl de Waard, Jacqueline van der Vis, Pascale A.H.T. Venema, Inger N. Sierevelt, Gino M.M.J. Kerkhoffs, and Daniël Haverkamp

  • Total hip arthroplasty is performed more frequently in younger patients nowadays, making long-term bone stock preservation an important topic. A mechanism for late implant failure is periprosthetic bone loss, caused by stress shielding around the hip stem due to different load distribution. Short stems are designed to keep the physical loading in the proximal part of the femur to reduce stress shielding. The aim of this review is to give more insight into how short and anatomic stems behave and whether they succeed in preservation of proximal bone stock.

  • A systematic literature search was performed to find all published studies on bone mineral density in short and anatomic hip stems. Results on periprosthetic femoral bone mineral density, measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), were compiled and analysed per Gruen zone in percentual change.

  • A total of 29 studies were included. In short stems, Gruen 1 showed bone loss of 5% after one year (n = 855) and 5% after two years (n = 266). Gruen 7 showed bone loss of 10% after one year and –11% after two years. In anatomic stems, Gruen 1 showed bone loss of 8% after one year (n = 731) and 11% after two years (n = 227). Gruen 7 showed bone loss of 14% after one year and 15% after two years.

  • Short stems are capable of preserving proximal bone stock and have slightly less proximal bone loss in the first years, compared to anatomic stems.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:1040-1051. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210030

Pieter Caekebeke, Joris Duerinckx, and Roger van Riet

  • Acute distal biceps tendon (DBT) pathology includes bicipitoradial bursitis, tendinosis, partial and complete tears.

  • Diagnosis of complete DBT tears is mainly clinical, whereas in partial tears medical imaging is a valuable addition to the clinical diagnosis.

  • New insights in clinical and medical imaging of partial tears may reduce time to diagnosis and may guide the treatment plan.

  • Most complete tears are best treated with primary repair using either a single-incision or double-incision approach with good clinical outcome.

  • The double-incision technique has a higher risk of heterotopic ossification, whereas a single-incision technique carries a higher risk of nerve-related complications.

  • Intramedullary fixation may be a viable solution to negate the risk of posterior interosseus nerve lesions in single-incision repairs.

  • DBT endoscopy can be used to treat low-grade partial tears and tendinosis.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:956-965. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200145

Patrick Goetti, Patrick J. Denard, Philippe Collin, Mohamed Ibrahim, Adrien Mazzolari, and Alexandre Lädermann

  • The biomechanics of the shoulder relies on careful balancing between stability and mobility. A thorough understanding of normal and degenerative shoulder anatomy is necessary, as the goal of anatomic total shoulder arthroplasty is to reproduce premorbid shoulder kinematics.

  • With reported joint reaction forces up to 2.4 times bodyweight, failure to restore anatomy and therefore provide a stable fulcrum will result in early implant failure secondary to glenoid loosening.

  • The high variability of proximal humeral anatomy can be addressed with modular stems or stemless humeral components. The development of three-dimensional planning has led to a better understanding of the complex nature of glenoid bone deformity in eccentric osteoarthritis.

  • The treatment of cuff tear arthropathy patients was revolutionized by the arrival of Grammont’s reverse shoulder arthroplasty. The initial design medialized the centre of rotation and distalized the humerus, allowing up to a 42% increase in the deltoid moment arm.

  • More modern reverse designs have maintained the element of restored stability but sought a more anatomic postoperative position to minimize complications and maximize rotational range of motion.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:918-931. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210014

E. Carlos Rodríguez-Merchán, Hortensia De la Corte-Rodríguez, Carlos A. Encinas-Ullán, and Primitivo Gómez-Cardero

  • The main complications of surgical reconstruction of multiligament injuries of the knee joint are residual or recurrent instability, arthrofibrosis, popliteal artery injury, common peroneal nerve injury, compartment syndrome, fluid extravasation, symptomatic heterotopic ossification, wound problems and infection, deep venous thrombosis, and revision surgery.

  • Careful surgical planning and execution of the primary surgical reconstruction of multiligament injuries of the knee joint can minimize the risk of the aforementioned complications.

  • Careful postoperative follow-up is required to detect complications. Early recognition and prompt treatment are of paramount importance.

  • To obtain good results in the revision surgery of failed multiligamentary knee reconstructions, it is crucial to perform a thorough and exhaustive evaluation to detect all the causes of failure.

  • Addressing all associated injuries during revision surgery will lead to the best possible subjective and objective results, although functional outcomes are often modest.

  • However, advanced age and high-energy injuries have been associated with the poorest functional outcomes after revision surgery of failed multiligament injuries of the knee joint.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:973-981. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210057

Richard Peter Almeida, Lipalo Mokete, Nkhodiseni Sikhauli, Allan Roy Sekeitto, and Jurek Pietrzak

  • Total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are successful orthopaedic procedures with an ever-increasing demand annually worldwide, and persistent wound drainage (PWD) is a well-known complication following these procedures. Despite many definitions for PWD having been proposed, a validated description remains elusive.

  • PWD is a risk factor for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). PJI is a devastating complication of THA and TKA, and a leading cause of revision surgery with dramatic morbidity and mortality and a significant burden on health socioeconomics.

  • Prevention of PJI has become an essential focus in THA and TKA. Understanding the pathophysiology, risk factors and subsequent management of PWD may aid in decreasing the rate of PJI.

  • Risk factors of PWD can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable patient risk factors, pharmacological and surgical risk factors. No gold standard treatment protocol to address PWD exists; however, non-operative options progressing to surgical interventions have been described.

  • The aim of this study was to review the current literature regarding PWD and consolidate the risk factors and management strategies available.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:872-880. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200054

Alan G. Fraser, Rob G.H.H. Nelissen, Per Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Piotr Szymański, Tom Melvin, Paul Piscoi, and On behalf of the CORE–MD Investigators (see Appendix)

In the European Union (EU), the delivery of health services is a national responsibility but there are concerted actions between member states to protect public health. Approval of pharmaceutical products is the responsibility of the European Medicines Agency, while authorising the placing on the market of medical devices is decentralised to independent ‘conformity assessment’ organisations called notified bodies. The first legal basis for an EU system of evaluating medical devices and approving their market access was the Medical Device Directive, from the 1990s. Uncertainties about clinical evidence requirements, among other reasons, led to the EU Medical Device Regulation (2017/745) that has applied since May 2021. It provides general principles for clinical investigations but few methodological details – which challenges responsible authorities to set appropriate balances between regulation and innovation, pre- and post-market studies, and clinical trials and real-world evidence. Scientific experts should advise on methods and standards for assessing and approving new high-risk devices, and safety, efficacy, and transparency of evidence should be paramount. The European Commission recently awarded a Horizon 2020 grant to a consortium led by the European Society of Cardiology and the European Federation of National Associations of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, that will review methodologies of clinical investigations, advise on study designs, and develop recommendations for aggregating clinical data from registries and other real-world sources. The CORE–MD project (Coordinating Research and Evidence for Medical Devices) will run until March 2024. Here, we describe how it may contribute to the development of regulatory science in Europe.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:839-849. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210081

Anna Bogdanova-Bennett, Amit Sagi, Vipin Asopa, Richard E. Field, and David H. Sochart

  • Approximately 60,000 cemented femoral stems are implanted in the UK each year with the majority being manufactured from stainless steel containing 10–15% nickel. Nickel hypersensitivity has been reported in up to 13% of the general population and there is a concern that nickel hypersensitivity might adversely affect the outcome of total hip replacement (THR). We reviewed the current literature on the potential link between nickel hypersensitivity and THR complications, and the usefulness of patch testing.

  • We conducted a literature search in PubMed, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. The level of evidence and the quality of the selected studies were assessed using the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine Criteria and the Methodological Index for Non-Randomised Studies tool, respectively.

  • Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria, reporting on 1852 patients who underwent primary or revision THR. All studies detailed skin patch testing and recorded prevalence of nickel hypersensitivity from 1.5% to 33.3%. Five studies reported a rise in Nickel hypersensitivity following THR, while four reported a decreased prevalence post-operatively. Eight studies concluded that metal hypersensitivity could have developed following THR, while seven studies did not support a link between metal hypersensitivity and THR complications. Four of the studies recommended routine patch testing pre-operatively, but three others concluded that routine patch testing was not indicated.

  • We have not identified a link between nickel hypersensitivity and THR complications, and the role of patch testing remains unclear. Further large-scale studies would be required to investigate this relationship and to clarify the role of patch testing in facilitating implant selection.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:825-838. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.210051

Kara McConaghy, Tabitha Derr, Robert M. Molloy, Alison K. Klika, Steven Kurtz, and Nicolas S. Piuzzi

  • The optimal management of the patella during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains controversial and surgeons tend to approach the patella with one of three general mindsets: always resurface the patella, never resurface the patella, or selectively resurface the patella based on specific patient or patellar criteria.

  • Studies comparing resurfacing and non-resurfacing of the patella during TKA have reported inconsistent and contradictory findings.

  • When resurfacing the patella is chosen, there are a number of available patellar component designs, materials, and techniques for cutting and fixation.

  • When patellar non-resurfacing is chosen, several alternatives are available, including patellar denervation, lateral retinacular release, and patelloplasty. Surgeons may choose to perform any of these alone, or together in some combination.

  • Prospective randomized studies are needed to better understand which patellar management techniques contribute to superior postoperative outcomes. Until then, this remains a controversial topic, and options for patellar management will need to be weighed on an individual basis per patient.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:861-871. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200156

Stephanie Marrannes, Klaas Victor, Nele Arnout, Tine De Backer, Jan Victor, and Thomas Tampere

  • Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a well-known complication following orthopaedic surgery. The incidence of this complication has decreased substantially since the introduction of routine thromboprophylaxis. However, concerns have been raised about increased bleeding complications caused by aggressive thromboprophylaxis.

  • Attention has grown for aspirin as a safer thromboprophylactic agent following orthopaedic surgery.

  • A systematic review using MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science databases was undertaken to compare the effectiveness of aspirin prophylaxis following knee surgery with the current standard prophylactic agents (low molecular weight heparin [LMWH], vitamin K antagonists and factor Xa inhibitors).

  • No significant difference in effectiveness of VTE prevention was found between aspirin, LMWH and warfarin. Factor Xa inhibitors were more effective, but increased bleeding complications were reported.

  • As evidence is limited and of low quality with substantial heterogeneity, further research with high-quality, adequately powered trials is needed.

Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2021;6:892-904. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.6.200120